The Lee Group - Optical Biofluidic Imaging Group

Our team explores the collective functional and morphological responses of complex cellular network in 3D under external stimulus (fluid shear, micro-textured surfaces, surface ligands).

We discover novel optical principles for the development of 4D imaging flow assays by exploring the interface of optics, surface chemistry and data science, Through our imaging, computational and biological tools, we shall profile complex functional behavior of cellular network and validate drug targets or the study of diseases and disorders.

Find out more about the Optical Biofluidic Imaging Group (OBIG) group on their website.  


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G Gauthier-Coles, J Vennitti, Zhiduo Zhang, W Comb, S Xing, K Javed, A Broer, and S Bröer "Quantitative modelling of amino acid transport and homeostasis in mammalian cells" Nat Comms 12, 5282 (2021) (pdf)

​M M. McDonald, Weng Hua Khoo…… P. Timpson, W M Lee,…,.P Croucher, T G Phan, “Osteoclasts recycle via osteomorphs during RANKL-stimulated bone resorption” Cell (Cell Press) 184 1330-1347 (2021) (pdf)

​Y Zheng, S J. Montague, Y J Lim, T Xu, E. E. Gardiner, W M Lee, “Label-free multimodal quantitative imaging flow assay for intra-thrombus formation in vitro” Biophys J (Cell Press) 120, 791-804(2021)Online (pdf)

​Tienan Xu, Yean Jin Lim, Yujie Zheng, Moon Sun Jung, Katharina Gaus, Elizabeth E. Gardiner and Woei Ming Lee "Modified inverted selective plane illumination microscopy for sub-micrometer imaging resolution in polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography devices" Lab On Chip 20, 3960-3969(2020) (pdf) DOI: 10.1039/D0LC00598C

Z Zhang,Y Zheng,T Xu, A Upadhya,Y J Lim, A Mathews,L Xie, W M Lee "Holo-UNet: hologram to hologram neural network restoration for high fidelity low light quantitative phase imaging of live cells" Biomedical Optics Express 11, 5478 (2020) doi:10.1364/BOE.395302 (Github link)

​SJ Montague, SM Hicks, C S-M Lee, LA Coupland, CR Parish, WM Lee, RK Andrews, EE Gardiner, "Fibrin exposure triggers αIIbβ3-independent platelet aggregate formation, ADAM10 activity and glycoprotein VI shedding in a charge-dependent manner" Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2020) (link) (pdf)

​Y Wang*, X F He*, K F Bruggeman, B Gayen, A Tricoli, W M Lee, R J Williams, D R Nisbet, “Peptide Programmed Hydrogels as Safe Sanctuary Microenvironments for Cell Transplantation” Advanced Functional Materials (2020) link ,pdf (*Equal contribution) ​

​S.J Montague, Y.J Lim, W.M Lee and E.E Gardiner, “Imaging platelet processes and function – current and emerging approaches for imaging in vitro and in vivo” Front. Immunol. (2020) doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00078 link (pdf)

​Y X Li, Y J Lim, Q K Xu, L Beattie, E E Gardiner, K Gaus, W Heath, W.M. Lee†, “Raster Scanning Adaptive Optics for video rate correction and large field of view imaging” Biomedical Optics Express 2 1032 (2020) link (pdf)

​A. Upadhya*, Y Zheng*, W.M.Lee†, “Structured Back Focal Plane Interferometry” Scientific Reports 9, 20273 (2019) link pdf * Equal contribution

​F. M. Ayyalil, S. J. Montague, S. Hicks, A. Kaur, A. Jahangiri, N. Pati, P. Crispin, Y. Zheng, X. Tienan, L. Coupland, W. M. Lee, J. D'Rozario, and E. E. Gardiner, "Platelet Function in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria" Blood 134, 4884-4884 (2019). link

​M Lui, E. E. Gardiner, J.F. Arthur, I Pinar, W M Lee, K Ryan, J Carberry, Robert K. Andrews “Thrombus Formation in Shear Gradients: Influence of Shear Forces and Human Platelet-Related Factors” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20(12), 2967 (2019) link

​X.F.He, SJ Montague, Xu Tao, EE Gardiner, WM Lee†, "Quantifying embolism: label free volumetric mapping of thrombus structure and kinesis in a microfluidic system with optical holography" Advanced Biosystems 1800089 (2018) link pdf

​W.M.Lee†, T J McMenamin, Y X Li "Optical toolkits for in vivo deep tissue laser scanning microscopy: a primer", Journal of Optics 20 (6), 063002 (2018) pdf , link

​Y X Li, S.J. Montague, A Brüstle, X.F. He, C. Gillespie, K Gaus, E.E. Gardiner, W.M.Lee† “High contrast imaging and flexible photomanipulation for quantitative in vivo multiphoton imaging with polygon scanning microscope” Journal of Biophotonics 11 (7), e201700341 (2018) link pdf

​T. Kamal, L. Yang, W. M. Lee† "In situ retrieval and correction of aberrations in moldless lenses using Fourier Ptychography ", Optics Express 26 2708 -2719 (2018) link

​​S. J. Montague, C Delierneux, C Lecut, N Layios, R J. Dinsdale, C Lee, N S. Poulter, R K. Andrews, P Hampson, C M. Wearn, N Maes, J Bishop, A Bamford, C Gardiner, W.M. Lee, T Iqbal, N Moiemen, S. P. Watson, C Oury, P Harrison, E. E. Gardiner, "Soluble GPVI is elevated in injured patients: shedding is mediated by fibrin activation of GPVI ", Blood Advances 2 240 (2018) link

​Qi Fang, A Curatolo, P Wijesinghe, J Hamzah, P Noble, K Karonwski, D D.Sampson, R Ganss, J K Kim, W. M. Lee, B Kennedy, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics” Biomedical Optics Express 8 5127 (2017) link OSA Spotlight

​R. Fleddermann*, W. M. Lee *†, K Huang, G. Campbell , P. K. Lam , J. H. Chow, "Compact flexible multi-pass rotary delay line using spinning micromachine mirror" 7 9299 Scientific Reports (2017) link * Equal contribution

​J Choy, S Sane, W M Lee, C Stricker, H Bachor, V Daria, “Improving focal photostimulation of cortical neurons with pre-derived wavefront correction” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11 105 (2017) link

​Y X Li * , V Gautam, A Brustle, I A Cockburn, V R Daria, C Gillespie, K Gaus, C Alt, and W M Lee †* “Flexible polygon-mirror based laser scanning microscope platform for multiphoton in-vivo imaging” 10 1526 Journal of Biophotonics (2017) 10.1002/jbio.201600289 (pdf) Media * Equal contribution

​T Kamal, R Watkins, Z Cen, J Rubinstein, G Kong and W.M.Lee† “Design and fabrication of a passive droplet dispenser for portable high resolution imaging system” Scientific Reports 7 41482 (2017) link

​X F He, C V Nguyen, M Pratap, Y J Zheng, Y Wang, D. R. Nisbet, R J Williams, M Rug, A G. Maier, W M Lee† "Automated Fourier space recognition filtering for off-axis digital holographic microscopy", Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 3111-3123 (2016) link

​W Zhu*, N Eckerskorn, A Upadhya , L Li, A V. Rode† and W M Lee*† "Dynamic axial control over optically levitating particles in air with an electrically-tunable variable-focus lens" Biomedical Optics Express 7(7), 2902-2911 (2016) link, Media * Equal contribution

​W.M. Lee †, “Miniature Droplet Lenses for mobile microscopy”, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1201505.005972 (2015) link

​T Kamal, X F He, W.M Lee †, "Reinventing Pocket Microscopy",InFocus (Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society) 37, 41- 43 (2015) pdf,link

​M Choi, W.M. Lee, S H Yun, “Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation”, Scientific Reports 5 8661 (2015) link , Media

​W.M. Lee †, “Frugal microscopy: Inspiring tomorrow’s interdisciplinary scientist “ InFocus (Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society) 36, 24-25 (2014) Letter to Editor pdf

W.M. Lee †, A. Upadhya, P.J. Reece, T G Phan, "Fabricating Low Cost and High Performance Elastomer Lenses using Hanging Droplets", Biomedical Optics Express 5 1626-1635 (2014) link, media

​L Li, W.M.Lee †, X.S Xie, W.Z Krolikowski, A.V. Rode, J Y Zhou, "Shaping Self-imaging Bottle Beams with Modified Quasi-Bessel Beams", Opt. Lett. 39, 2278-2281 (2014). pdf

​Niko Eckerskorn, Li Li, Richard A. Kirian, Jochen Küpper, Daniel P. DePonte, Wieslaw Krolikowski, W. M. Lee, Henry N. Chapman, and Andrei V. Rode, "Hollow Bessel-like beam as an optical guide for a stream of microscopic particles," Opt. Express 21, 30492-30499 (2013) link

​F Wang, W Toe, W.M Lee et al “Resolving Stable Axial Trapping Points of Nanowires in an Optical Tweezers Using Photoluminescence Mapping" Nanoletters 13 1185-1191 (2013) pdf

​Akiyoshi, T., W. M. Lee, et al. "In Vivo Two Photon Microscopy of Aortic Allografts: A New Tool for Investigation of the Dynamics of Graft Vascular Rejection." American Journal of Transplantation 12: 466-466. (2012).

​J K Kim*, W.M Lee* et al, In vivo cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals with GRIN fluorescence endomicroscopy: from fabrication to imaging” Nature Protocols 7 1456-1469(2012) *Cover Article * Equal contribution pdf

​W. M. Lee, S H Yun "Adaptive aberration correction of GRIN lenses for confocal laser scanning micro-endoscopy," Optics letters 36, 4608 (2011). * Reported in Virtual Journal of Bio pdf

​Y. Arita, M. L. Torres-Mapa, W. M. Lee, T.Cizmar, P. Campbell, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, "Spatially optimized gene transfection by laser-induced breakdown of optically trapped nanoparticles," Applied Physics Letters 98, 093702 (2011). pdf

​J. C. Shane, M. Mazilu, W. M. Lee, and K. Dholakia, "Effect of pulse temporal shape on optical trapping and impulse transfer using ultrashort pulsed lasers," Optics Express 18, 7554-7568 (2010). link

​P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, "Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 16, 608-618 (2010). pdf

​T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee †, K. M. Tan, B. K. Ng, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Resolving interparticle position and optical forces along the axial direction using optical coherence gating," Applied Physics Letters 97, 231113 (2010) pdf

​K. M. Tan, M. Mazilu, T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee, K. Taguchi, B. K. Ng, W. Sibbett, C. S. Herrington, C. T. A. Brown, and K. Dholakia, "In-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography using a conical-tip fiber," Optics Express 17, 2375-2384 (2009). * Reported in Virtual Journal of Bio, Covered by OCT News link

​W. M. Lee †, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, and E. M. Wright, "Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions," Optics Express 17, 10277-10289 (2009). pdf

​R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, E. M. Wright, W. M. Lee, and K. Dholakia, "Nonlinear optical dynamics in non-ideal gases of interacting colloidal nanoparticles," Physical Review A 80, 053805 (2009). pdf

​J. L. Hernandez-Pozos, W. M. Lee, L. I. Vera-Robles, A. Campero, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled three-dimensional manipulation of vanadium oxide nanotubes with optical tweezers," Applied Physics Letters 93, 243107 (2008).​ pdf

​W. M. Lee, P. J. Reece, R. F. Marchington, N. K. Metzger, and K. Dholakia, "Construction and calibration of an optical trap on a fluorescence optical microscope," Nature Protocols 2, 3226-3238 (2007). pdf

​W. M. Lee, and K. Dholakia, "Optically trapped and controlled microapertures for studies of spatial coherence in an arbitrary light field," Applied physics letters 90, 261101 (2007).pdf

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, "Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 13, 1646-1654 (2007).pdf

W. M. Lee, V. Garcas -Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Interference from multiple trapped colloids in an optical vortex beam," Optics Express 14, 7436-7446 (2006).link

​X. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, W. M. Lee, K. J. Moh, J. Lin, and S. H. Tao, "High efficient micro-optical elements for optical vortices in optical manipulation," OPN, (2005). link

​K. J. Moh, W. M. Lee, W. C. Cheong, and X. C. Yuan, "Multiple optical line traps using a single phase-only rectangular ridge," Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 80, 973-976 (2005).pdf

​W. M. Lee, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, and K. Dholakia, "Optical steering of high and low index microparticles by manipulating an off-axis optical vortex," Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 7, 1 (2005). pdf

​S. H. Tao, W. M. Lee, and X. Yuan, "Experimental study of holographic generation of fractional Bessel beams," Applied optics 43, 122-126 (2004).pdf

​W. M. Lee†, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, "Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step," Optics communications 239, 129-135 (2004).pdf

​W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and W. C. Cheong, "Optical vortex beam shaping by use of highly efficient irregular spiral phase plates for optical micromanipulation," Optics letters 29, 1796-1798 (2004).pdf

​W. M. Lee, and X. C. Yuan, "Experimental observation of'pure helical phase'interference using moire fringes generated from holograms with dislocations," Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 6, 482 (2004). pdf

​W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, K. Dholakia, and H. Wang, "Direct electron-beam writing of continuous spiral phase plates in negative resist with high power efficiency for optical manipulation," Applied physics letters 85, 5784 (2004).*Photonics Spectra pdf

​S. H. Tao, W. M. Lee, and X. C. Yuan, "Dynamic optical manipulation with a higher-order fractional Bessel beam generated from a spatial light modulator," Optics letters 28, 1867-1869 (2003). pdf

​W. M. Lee, and X. C. Yuan, "Observation of three-dimensional optical stacking of microparticles using a single Laguerre Gaussian beam," Applied physics letters 83, 5124-5126 (2003).pdf

​W. M. Lee, X. Yuan, and D. Tang, "Optical tweezers with multiple optical forces using double-hologram interference," Optics Express 11, 199-207 (2003). * Issue Cover * Photonics Spectra​​ link