Across eukaryotes a fast, initial response to stress is mediated by messenger (m)RNAs already present in the cytoplasm, before transcription in the nucleus is re-programmed. However, major questions about the molecular mechanisms of rapid stress adaptation remain unanswered: (1) What are the mRNA sequences controlling rapid adaptation? (2) Which translation factors dynamically adjust proteome composition? (3) How do alternative translation pathways contribute to the response? (4) How do changes in ribosomal configuration, availability for translation and structural arrangement of RNA drive the response? During stress, mammalian frontline responses regulating mRNA and its translation are pervasive and critical for cell death/survival decisions and adaptation, but the transnational control and input of the different phases of translation remains largely unknown. We wish to provide this information.